An international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Kyoto Protocol sets binding targets for industrialized countries which are signatories to the protocol as listed in Annex 1, for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions amounting to an average of a 5% reduction against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-12. The UNFCCC encourages industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions; the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.