Colgate University Selects ClimeCo To Help Reduce Its Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Colgate University Selects ClimeCo To Help Reduce Its Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Nancy Marshall, SVP, Marketing
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Colgate University Selects ClimeCo To Help Reduce Its Greenhouse Gas Emissions

by: Dustin Zimmer | September 27, 2023

BOYERTOWN, Pennsylvania (September 27, 2023) – As part of an ongoing commitment to carbon neutrality, Colgate University has chosen to offset 1,600 tonnes of its carbon footprint with nitrous oxide (N2O) abatement credits supplied by ClimeCo. These credits came from the Ascend Performance Materials Operations, LLC plant in Florida. This project is third-party verified and registered through the Climate Action Reserve (CAR) Registry. Students, staff, and faculty representatives decided to purchase these credits after receiving feedback from campus groups and individuals about the most critical carbon offset factors for the university community. Colgate committed to carbon neutrality in 2008 and, in April 2019, became the first institution of higher education in the State of New York to achieve carbon neutrality.

ClimeCo Senior Vice President for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Markets, Linda Kelly, said, “The consultancy leading Colgate University’s selection process for carbon offset projects recognized the need to balance Colgate’s project choices with a high-quality and highly effective industrial emissions mitigation project like the Ascend Performance Materials N2O Abatement Project. We’re proud of ClimeCo’s leadership in this area and Colgate’s recognition of the quality and effectiveness of this project.”

Ascend Performance Materials Operations, LLC Plant in Florida

ClimeCo and Ascend Performance Materials have created the largest voluntary nitrous oxide abatement project in North America. N2O is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 265 times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Ascend’s GHG avoidance project destroys N2O at the source, permanently preventing the GHG from ever entering the atmosphere. Emission reduction assertions are backed by high-quality N2O concentration and flowrate data that are collected by a continuous emission monitoring system.

To achieve carbon neutrality, Colgate University offset its remaining on-campus carbon emissions by investing in off-campus carbon reduction projects, like those supported by ClimeCo, so that its net carbon footprint is zero. The balance between decarbonizing industry and restoring nature was also considered, as 1,000 tonnes of carbon credits were purchased from a grasslands preservation project in Colorado. 

ClimeCo strongly believes there should be a comprehensive approach to combat climate change. For more information, read our Transparency In Developing Carbon Credits editorial series highlighting the importance of Nature-Based Solutions and Industrial Projects in a harmonized sustainability portfolio.

To purchase or learn more about high-quality industrial credits from the Ascend N2O abatement project, please contact Linda Kelly at


About Colgate University

Colgate University is a private liberal arts college that was founded in 1819. Colgate’s mission is to provide a demanding, expansive, educational experience to a select group of diverse, talented, intellectually sophisticated students who are capable of challenging themselves, their peers, and their teachers in a setting that brings together living and learning. The purpose of the university is to develop wise, thoughtful, critical thinkers and perceptive leaders by challenging young men and women to fulfill their potential through residence in a community that values intellectual rigor and respects the complexity of human understanding.


About ClimeCo

ClimeCo is a leader in the development and management of environmental commodities. We combine unrivaled commodity market expertise to help clients maximize their environmental assets while minimizing regulatory costs. ClimeCo was founded on its expertise in the petrochemical industry and currently manages nearly all voluntary N2O abatement projects in North America.

For more information or to discuss how ClimeCo can drive value for your organization, contact us through our website, Follow us on LinkedIn, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter using our handle, @ClimeCo.

Forest Management Strategies for Creating Carbon Offsets

Forest Management Strategies for Creating Carbon Offsets

Forest Management Strategies for Creating Carbon Offsets

Forest Management Strategies for Creating Carbon Offsets
Did you know that land use change and deforestation contribute between 12–20% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [1]? It is no wonder that the idea of harnessing the carbon market to reverse these trends has attracted substantial interest.

In our recent editorial series, Transparency in Developing Carbon Credits, we explain how offsets are generated, discuss the meaning of high-quality, and describe the difference between industrial, technology-based, and nature-based projects. As forest and ecosystem experts, we want to take you beyond that series and elaborate on what high-quality nature-based solutions (NBS) mean in terms of forest carbon accounting and how Improved Forest Management (IFM) practices can boost the potential to generate carbon credits.

IFM as a Tool in Managing Existing Carbon Stocks 

High-quality NBS projects remove and store large amounts of carbon from the atmosphere while also benefiting local communities and biodiversity. Generally, NBS projects are classified into two primary sub-categories (or project types): protection (stewardship/avoided emission) and restoration (reforestation or afforestation/removed emissions). Protection projects revolve around preventing forest loss in high-risk areas, typically determined based on a 10-year historical trajectory of deforestation rates. Credits are allocated based on the number of carbon emissions (CO2e) avoided from entering the atmosphere due to successful forest conservation efforts. Meanwhile, restoration projects generate credits that reflect the annual carbon emissions removed from the atmosphere and are stored because of additional tree growth. These projects focus on expanding tree coverage through the following practices: 

  • Reforestation – the natural or intentional replenishing of existing forests that have been depleted, usually through deforestation but also after clearcutting
  • Afforestation – the establishment of a forest in an area where there was no recent tree cover
  • Agroforestry – cultivation, and use of trees and shrubs with crops and livestock in sustainable agricultural systems
  • Silvopastoral – the practice of integrating trees, forage, and the grazing of domesticated animals in a mutually beneficial way

Can you combine the benefits of both protection and restoration with IFM? Yes, you can. 

IFM projects focus on maximizing carbon emissions avoidance and removal potential of working forests, those subject to commercial timber harvest. A great example and triumphant story of carbon credits generated by an IFM project can be seen on Afognak Island in Southern Alaska. Here is an excellent example of how ClimeCo strives to ensure that our NBS projects go above and beyond the current standards 

The Afognak Forest Carbon Project, developed from a partnership between the American Land Conservancy and the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, protects 8,200 acres of centuries-old Sitka spruce forests from any future logging exploitation, ensuring it will sequester and store carbon long into the future. Protecting unlogged Afognak’s forests will retain the carbon in the current forest biomass, sequester additional carbon in the conserved forests, and avoid emissions from logging and transportation.

The Afognak Forest in the state of Alaska
The Afognak Forest Carbon Project achieves net GHG emission reductions and removals by avoiding carbon emissions from logging in the baseline scenario. The Afognak properties were being managed for timber production by previous managers with logging plans and adjacent properties owned by the previous owners. The most plausible baseline scenario would be clearcut timber harvesting following minimum State of Alaska forest requirements and standard practices, evident from the slow recovery times resulting from previous logging in the project lands across Afognak Island.

The Afognak project scenario is conservation management, wherein the State of Alaska manages the properties for wilderness and ecosystem protection and enhancement activities under the terms of the title transfer agreement and federal conservation easement. Additionality is demonstrated as the project activity prevents planned harvest of the current native forests in perpetuity.

A comparison of Net Ecosystem Carbon Storage (Biomass + Deadwood + Belowground dead biomass) by Scenario (Year 1 = 2008).

Forest Carbon Accounting: How Are Credits Estimated?

High-quality NBS have a measurable and verifiable atmospheric impact. As demonstrated in the equation below, credits are based on the difference between baseline and project carbon emissions. Different carbon source/sink pools depend on the project type (protection, restoration, IFM) and the standard applied: Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) [2], Climate Action Reserve (CAR) [3], American Carbon Registry (ACR) [4]. For instance, the Afognak project follows VCS Methodology VM00012, providing for IFM in Temperate and Boreal Forests. The source/sink pools included in estimating baseline and project carbon emissions were standing live trees (aboveground biomass), standing dead trees, harvested wood products, roots (belowground biomass), and dead wood. Secondary effects may also be considered, such as burning logging slash and fossil fuels, including carbon emissions related to machinery during site preparation, and emissions from clearing shrubs in the project area.

Project reduction, minus baseline emissions, minus leakage emissions, equals total credits
Uncertainty in estimating carbon credits from NBS projects is expected. It arises from errors associated with measuring and modeling carbon stored in biomass, mapping errors, and various quantifying carbon impacts. These errors are estimated and accounted for by deducting error terms from calculated emission reductions and removals. Furthermore, there is the possibility of market forces causing the activities and carbon emissions to leak out of the project boundary [5]. Current standards require monitoring “leakage belts” and discounting credits to account for estimated leakage [6]. Finally, there is the possibility of project failure. To ensure that credits are effectively permanent (e.g., emissions reduction or removal will not be emitted within the next 100 years), some standards require a contribution of 1030% of the generated credits to an insurance buffer pool that backstops emissions associated with natural disturbances (e.g., fire, floods, hurricanes) or human-induced disturbance (e.g., illegal logging).

ClimeCo addresses uncertainty in forest carbon credit estimation through improved methodologies and data collection. By adopting conservative estimates, reduced uncertainty occurs. A rigorous MRV process is implemented to provide stakeholders with reliable information and reduce the risk of inaccurate reporting. 

The annual monitoring, reporting, and verification cycle (MRV)

We know forest carbon accounting can be complex, but transparency is crucial to ensure the credibility and effectiveness of NBS project types in mitigating carbon emissions. IFM can increase avoidance and removal of carbon emissions through planned activities over business-as-usual projections. This approach helps to sustainably manage forests and protect and provide economic development and biodiversity conservation opportunities. 

Our nature-based project development experts are rich in ecosystems and forest sciences. We are here to support and are ready to share our knowledge to help our clients make the best decisions for their business and our planet. To learn more about the environmental benefits of the Afognak, please read our previous blog, Beyond the Trees.

[1]  Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (Cambridge University Press, 2022)
[2]  Verified Carbon Standard (2023, June 12)
[3]  Climate Action Reserve (2023, June 12)
[4]  American Carbon Registry (2023, June 12)

[5]  United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2021)
[6]  Jenkins, W. A., Olander, L. P., & Murray, B. C. (2009)

About the Authors 

Juliana Magalhaes, a Senior Project Associate at ClimeCo, is passionate about turning science-based ideas into actions that promote the sustainability of forests. Her experience with forest growth data and understanding of multi-objective forest management is helping to develop high-quality NBS projects at ClimeCo. 

Karina Salimbayeva is a Senior Project Associate at ClimeCo, specializing in nature-based solutions. With a deep understanding of forestry and extensive experience in spatial analysis, Karina combines her passion for the environment with cutting-edge technology to inform decision-making in carbon projects. 

Aclymate Receives State Grant to Fight Climate Change

Aclymate Receives State Grant to Fight Climate Change

Sara Miranda, Director of Marketing
203.998.5331 or  

Aclymate Receives State Grant to Fight Climate Change

Guiding Small Businesses to Carbon Neutrality with Custom Carbon Accounting Software Solution

Aclymate PR Trees

Denver, Colorado (December 1, 2022) –
Aclymate, the leading climate solutions provider in the U.S. specifically designed for small businesses, is pleased to announce it has been awarded an Early-Stage Capital and Retention Grant through the Colorado Office of Economic Development and International Trade (OEDIT) Advanced Industries Accelerator program. This funding will help further the company’s mission to inspire and equip small businesses to lead on climate.

“We are honored to receive the Early-Stage Capital and Retention Grant, and look forward to providing the services our customers desperately need to participate in the climate economy, whether for investors or fulfilling supplier requirements,” said Mike Smith, CEO at Aclymate.

The Early-Stage Capital and Retention grant support businesses commercializing innovative and disruptive technologies in the advanced industries that will be created or manufactured in Colorado. These grants help promote the growth and sustainability of advanced industries across the state by driving innovation and commercialization that move this vital part of the Colorado economy forward.

Aclymate was awarded $215,000 to improve the customer experience with reduced data entry through data integration, expanded reporting functionality, and a broader scope of carbon emissions accounting.

“Across the state, companies are rethinking existing technologies and inventing new ones within the advanced industries sector. Their success will create good-paying jobs in Colorado and potentially change lives across the state and beyond. We are thrilled to be able to support their development and look forward to celebrating future accomplishments,” said Rama Haris, Advanced Industries Senior Manager at OEDIT.

To learn more about the Aclymate platform, visit

About Aclymate

Aclymate empowers small and medium-sized businesses to become Climate Leaders. With no special knowledge required, our customers can determine their emissions footprint in under 10 minutes per month, find ways to reduce their impact and offset what cannot be eliminated – all leading to our Climate Leader certification. For more information or to sign up for a free consultation, please visit our website.

About ClimeCo

ClimeCo, a respected global advisor, transaction facilitator, trader, and developer of environmental commodity market products and related solutions, is a proud partner of Aclymate. ClimeCo participates on the Board of Directors and supports Aclymate in maintaining a great selection of high-quality offset projects. In addition, this partnership provides small and medium sized businesses with an expanded suite of services, including expert ESG Advisory.


A Balanced Approach

A Balanced Approach

A Balanced Approach

by William Flederbach, President & CEO | September 30, 2020

Life is about balance.
Our fight against climate change must also be balanced.

At ClimeCo, we balance our investments on all types of projects that mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.  From sequestering carbon with nature-based solutions (NBS) like grassland preservation, reforestation, and mangrove re-establishment, to destroying it at manufacturing sites before it ever gets emitted into the atmosphere, we strive for a balanced approach to addressing climate change. 

Our first focus as a company is on destroying GHGs before they ever have a chance to be emitted into the atmosphere.  This results in a permanent, non-reversible reduction that offers assurances to our clients.  So why is this approach to climate change not as popular in the marketplace?  Why does the market prefer to sequester GHGs from the atmosphere after they have already been emitted than trying to prevent them from making it that far in the first place?  Imagine how much easier it would be to knock it out at its origin than to chase it down later.  To us, the proper approach requires a balance of both – destroying the GHG molecules before they are emitted to the atmosphere and then sequestering any unavoidable emissions that occur.


The Facts

The USEPA publishes world-wide sources of GHG emissions by major economic sector.  The USEPA reported that destructive patterns of land use account for 24 percent of human-caused GHG emissions (See Figure 1).  Of this, deforestation and forest degradation account for 17 percent of global GHG emissions. 


Figure 1 – Sources of GHG Emissions (USEPA)

At the same time, studies by the Global Carbon Project revealed that 45% of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere are retained there, with only 55% being sequestered by land and oceans (See Figure 2).


Figure 2 – Fate of Carbon Emissions (Global Carbon Project)

Since nearly half of all GHGs will remain in the atmosphere for long periods of time, never to be sequestered, this supports the absolute need for a balanced approach: stop what you can from entering the atmosphere while increasing land-based solutions to enhance sequestration for the rest.  It’s that simple… right?


Nature-Based Solutions

NBS has become the buzz phrase recently but these practices, such as proper forest stewardship and regenerative agriculture, are not new and have been in place at some level for decades.  In fact, at the heart of the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX), which was founded in 2003, was the Continuous Conservation Tillage and Conversion to Grassland protocol.  I grew up in the country where farmers would rotate crops between corn and soybeans, and we understood this helped to keep the soil healthy (not to mention its positive impact on our corn maze adventures!).  Now, this solid farming stewardship is considered fundamental to regenerative agriculture.

Today, there has been a renewed focus on at-scale reforestation efforts (such as ClimeCo’s partnership with Restore the Earth), grassland preservation and restoration, mangroves re-establishment, regenerative agriculture, and more.  These all play a critical role in combatting climate change.


Reversal Risks

California, under the Assembly Bill 32 Cap-and-Trade program, has issued over 151 million tonnes of carbon offsets (in the forestry sector) since its inception 8 years ago. The California Government Wildfire Report, states that, as of September 28, 2020, there have been over 8,100 fires this year that have consumed more than 3.7 million acres.  According to the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, as of September 13, 2020, CO2 emissions from wildfires have reached about 83 million metric tonnes.  That is the highest level recorded since recordkeepings began in 2003.  The forest fires on the west coast are certainly exacerbated by climate change, as they are being fueled by two common contributors – dryer conditions and stronger winds.  Unfortunately, this will only get worse in the years ahead.  It is a sad story that highlights natural reversal risks in fire-prone areas of the country.

In addition to wildfires and other natural disasters, the intentional and illegal reversal of forests also occurs within countries wrought with political risk and unclear land rights.  For example, one only needs to look to Brazil, where a horrific tale of illegal deforestation is occurring.  According to conservation groups, deforestation in this region has soared since the Brazilian President, Jair Bolsonaro, took office last year.  Numbers released by the Amazon Deforestation Satellite Monitoring Project, a high-resolution system operated by INPE that produces Brazil’s official deforestation data, showed that 10,100 km2 of forest were cleared between August 2018 and July 2019, a 34% increase from the previous year. Imagine being an investor in forest carbon offset projects in Brazil; would you feel comfortable that you had made a sound investment, an investment that was going to help combat climate change?

Do the risks of accidental or intentional reversal mean that we should not pursue forest or other very important NBS projects?  No, I would argue that these examples are more reason to invest in projects to enhance NBS carbon sequestration.  That said, when making your investments, understand thoroughly how the methodologies account for reversal risk, and be sure to identify both the geographical and political risks.


Permanent GHG Removal

Removing GHGs at the point of origin has always been a major focus for ClimeCo.  We like this approach because of the permanent, non-reversible solution it provides us in the fight against climate change.  To-date, ClimeCo has stopped over 20 million tonnes of CO2e from entering the atmosphere, and we are just getting ramped up!  Our expertise includes nitrous oxide abatement at nitric acid plants, ozone-depleting substance (ODS) destruction, methane capture and use, methane avoidance (composting), and more. These projects have no reversal risks and are of the highest quality.  ClimeCo has recently leveraged its N2O experience to lead the development of the Climate Action Reserve (CAR) Adipic Acid Protocol, which was approved by the CAR Board on September 30th.  This project type will abate an additional 5-10 million tonnes of CO2e annually in the United States.  Adipic acid is used to produce high performance plastics, including plastics contained in automobile airbags and light weight plastic in electric vehicles.  ClimeCo is also designing and building additional nitric acid (primarily used in fertilizer production) N2O abatement projects across North America.  We will soon exceed 15 million tonnes per year of CO2e abatement.

Imagine if these projects had not happened and this GHG loading had entered the atmosphere.  This would mean that, in the absence of ClimeCo’s efforts, to-date there would be an additional 20 million tonnes of CO2e in the atmosphere and, over the next decade, another 150 million tonnes or more impacting our climate.  If we were to rely only on sequestering, like as in a reforestation project, to reverse 170 million tonnes of CO2e, it would require in today’s marketplace a total of 850,000 acres at an average price of $12/tonne (forestry credit prices currently range from $8-15/tonne), resulting in a total cost of around $2,040,000,000.  By comparison, the same impact could be realized for far less cost with no reversal risk from ClimeCo’s GHG abatement technologies.  

So, my point is that there needs to be a balance of both permanent destruction of GHG molecules and sequestration in the marketplace for us to achieve our climate goals.  Relying on just one method will not get us there but finding the balance between the two can.

About the Author

William “Bill” Flederbach cofounded ClimeCo in 2009 and has grown the business rapidly over the past 10 years.  Before starting ClimeCo, Bill managed the air quality practice at O’Brien and Gere (OBG), and worked and managed the international carbon markets at MGM International and AgCert.  He is a graduate of Pennsylvania State University and the Smeal College of Business at Penn State.

A New Approach to Mitigating Future Carbon Emissions

A New Approach to Mitigating Future Carbon Emissions

A New Approach to Mitigating Future Carbon Emissions

by David Priddy, Vice President of Business Development | August 27th, 2020

Seldom has a day gone by that we have not heard of a company or organization announcing new climate change commitments.  Just in the past few months, we have witnessed companies, including Apple, Delta Air Lines, and Unilever, announcing bold carbon-neutrality goals as they seek to do their part to address the climate crisis.  In fact, Microsoft’s plan to offset its entire carbon footprint dating back to its inception in 1975 may represent the most ambitious commitment that we’ve seen yet!

So, this leads us to a question we are often asked:

How can my organization achieve carbon neutrality while we continue to grow?”

While it may be game-on in the pursuit to green up your existing operations, you must also consider your company’s future.  As your business grows, implements new projects, expands office space, increases staff, constructs new facilities, or locates new business sites, you will contribute additional GHGs above and beyond your existing footprint.  This will need to be addressed as you plan your mitigation approach. 

So how can this be achieved?  Will there be enough carbon offsets available to meet your needs?  More importantly, is there a way for you to have more direct engagement when it comes to emission reduction activities that will align with your growth timeline?  Well, thanks to Climate Forward, a new program recently instituted by the Climate Action Reserve (the Reserve), the answer is yes!

Climate Forward

Climate Forward is a program that provides a practical solution for companies and other organizations that seek cost-effective mitigation of anticipated GHG emissions. The program is designed to facilitate investments in emission reduction projects today that will result in future GHG reductions that are aligned to mitigate the future emissions of a company, organization, or project.  Its purpose is to incentivize the implementation of emission reduction projects that would otherwise be unviable using traditional carbon offset programs.

Under this program, the Reserve issues Forecasted Mitigation Units (FMUs) upfront for a project’s entire crediting period upon the completion of its confirmation, a process conducted by an independent third party that demonstrates that the project has been implemented according to an approved methodology.  The methodologies within this program contain the eligibility rules, quantification methods, and documentation and confirmation requirements that ensure the consistency and rigor of GHG reduction accounting for a specific mitigation project.  Meanwhile, the up-front issuance of FMUs helps to shift the project’s economic curve to better incentivize long-term mitigation efforts, allowing the company to plan and implement emission reduction projects that align with their sustainability objectives.

FMUs versus Offsets

While FMUs and offsets are similar in that they are both equal to the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), there are several differentiating factors between them.  The primary difference is that FMUs represent emissions that are expected to be reduced (ex-ante), while offsets represent emissions that have already been reduced and have completed a rigorous monitoring and verification process (ex-post).  While offsets are typically applied against past emission-producing activities, FMUs can only be applied against a future stream of greenhouse gas emissions.  While the detailed auditing process for both project types is similar, they occur at different stages of the project cycle: for offset projects, the “verification” process is conducted periodically throughout the crediting period but, for FMU projects, the “confirmation” process is done only once, at the beginning of the crediting period. This one-time confirmation process helps to facilitate the monetization of FMUs in the early stages of the project, which in turn can be used to support the financing of future activities associated with the project.

Benefits and Applications

The Climate Forward program offers several benefits to organizations and developers that are seeking carbon neutrality:

  • It reduces the barriers for innovative, targeted climate solutions.
  • It can incentivize the development of carbon projects that produce co-benefits that may help the organization achieve ESG goals above and beyond climate impacts; such co-benefits can be tailored to the organization’s goals and values.
  • Projects can be targeted to occur in the communities that are directly impacted by their operations.
  • Projects under these types of programs help demonstrate climate leadership.

One potential application of Climate Forward is for GHG mitigation requirements under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).  CEQA requires state and local agencies to follow a protocol of analysis and public disclosure of future environmental impacts of a proposed project and to adopt feasible measures to mitigate those impacts.  Climate Forward can provide entities that are subject to CEQA GHG mitigation requirements with a cost-effective and environmentally rigorous option for future GHG mitigation.

Another potential application of Climate Forward is for developers of mixed-use communities to participate in reforestation projects, where the purchase of FMUs could be used to mitigate the carbon footprints of their projects while incentivizing reforestation efforts. In fact, ClimeCo is presently supporting a reforestation project in the Mississippi River Basin in partnership with Restore the Earth Foundation, using Climate Forward’s Reforestation methodology; the long-term goal of this project is to restore a total of 1 million acres using this methodology.

Getting Involved

Climate Forward provides organizations with a unique opportunity to partner with other organizations to implement sustainable projects while providing benefits to their future mitigation efforts.  As of this writing, there are a half-dozen methodologies that are either approved or under development in the Climate Forward program; however, there are many more creative, innovative mitigation activities that could be considered for development as a future methodology. The program is designed to expand the scope of feasible GHG mitigation project types by encouraging third parties to submit their methodologies for mitigation activities.  So, if you have an idea in mind for an innovative emission reduction or carbon sequestration project, ClimeCo is happy to help! 

About the Author

Dave Priddy is ClimeCo’s Vice President of Business Development. He has more than 25 years of experience in the environmental management field.  He is responsible for the strategy, development, and promotion of ClimeCo’s Nature-based Solutions initiative, and for developing mutually-beneficial partnerships with both landowners and conservation organizations that result in projects that generate positive environmental attributes. David holds a B.S. in Engineering from the University of Louisiana, Lafayette.